Mount Etna


Mount Etna, Latin Aetna, Sicilian Mongibello, active volcano on the east coast of Sicily. The name comes from the Greek Aitne, from aithō, “I burn.” Mount Etna is the highest active volcano in Europe, its topmost elevation being about 10,900 feet (3,320 meters). Like other active volcanoes, it varies in height, increasing from deposition during eruptions and decreasing from the periodic collapse of the crater’s rim. In 1865 the volcanic summit was about 170 feet (52 meters) higher than it was in the early 21st century. Etna covers an area of some 600 square miles (1,600 square km), and its base has a circumference of about 93 miles (150 km).

Etna has been studied systematically since the middle of the 19th century. Three observatories have been set up on its slopes; they are located at Catania, Casa Etnea, and Cantoniera.


Etna’s geological characteristics indicate that it has been active since the end of the Neogene Period (i.e., for about the past 2.6 million years). The volcano has had more than one active center. A number of subsidiary cones have been formed on lateral fissures extending out from the center and down the sides. The present structure of the mountain is the result of the activity of at least two main eruptive centers.

The Greeks created legends about the volcano, saying that it was the workshop of Hephaestus and the Cyclops or that underneath it the giant Typhon lay, making the Earth tremble when he turned. The ancient poet Hesiod spoke of Etna’s eruptions, and the Greeks Pindar and Aeschylus referred to a famous eruption of 475 BCE. Another of Etna’s better-known ancient eruptions was that of 396 BCE, which kept the Carthaginian army from reaching Catania. From 1500 BCE to 1669 CE there are records of 71 eruptions, of which 14 occurred before the Common Era. An eruption in 1381 sent a lava flow as far as the Ionian Sea, about 10 miles (16 km) away. The most violent historical eruption, however, was in 1669 (March 11–July 15), when about 990 million cubic yards (830 million cubic meters) of lava were thrown out. The eruption took place along a fissure that opened above the town of Nicolosi, widening into a chasm from which lava flowed and solid fragments, sand, and ashes were hurled. The latter formed a double cone more than 150 feet (46 meters) high, named Monti Rossi. The lava flow destroyed a dozen villages on the lower slope and submerged the western part of the town of Catania. Efforts to divert the lava stream away from Catania were made by workers who dug a trench above the village. Historically, this seems to have been the first attempt to divert a lava stream.

Between 1669 and 1900, 26 more eruptions were reported. The eruption of 1852–53 flattened large stands of timber and nearly destroyed the town of Zafferana. During the 20th century, there were eruptions in 1908, 1910, 1911, 1918, 1923, 1928, 1942, 1947, 1949, 1950–51, and 1971. That of 1928 cut off the railway around the base of the mountain and buried the village of Mascali. The eruption of 1971 threatened several villages with its lava flow and destroyed some orchards and vineyards. The activity was almost continuous in the decade following 1971, and in 1983 an eruption that lasted four months prompted authorities to explode dynamite in an attempt to divert lava flows. The final major eruptions of the 20th century occurred in 1986 and in 1999.

In the early 21st century a major eruption began in July 2001 and lasted several weeks. Other significant early 21st-century volcanic activity included the Strombolian eruptions of 2002–03, 2007, 2015, 2017, 2019, and 2020. (Strombolian eruptions involve moderate bursts of expanding gases that eject clots of incandescent lava in cyclical or nearly continuous small eruptions.

Physical Geography

The mountain has three ecological zones, one above the other, each exhibiting its own characteristic vegetation. The lowest zone, sloping gradually upward to perhaps 3,000 feet (915 meters), is fertile and rich in vineyards, olive groves, citrus plantations, and orchards. Several densely populated settlements, notably the city of Catania, are found on the lower slopes, but settlements become less frequent as the height increases. Above, the mountain grows steeper and is covered with forests of chestnut, beech, oak, pine, and birch. At heights of more than 6,500 feet (1,980 meters), the mountain is covered with ashes, sand, and fragments of lava and slag; there are a few scattered plants such as Astragalus aetnensis (local name: spino Santo), which typically forms bushes almost 1 yard (about 0.9 meters) high, while some alpine plants manage to survive even near the top. Algae have been found near the steam outlets at 9,800 feet (2,990 meters).

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